Archive | September, 2012

The Good and the Evil

24 Sep

We can talk about anything frankly and truthfully among best friends, almost anything.  Most people cannot bear the truth because the truth hurts. Best friends and I are talked frankly because we did and we survived.  Lucky us!

Does that mean we should continue to do so?  The answer has everything and anything to do with  “the good and the evil.”

I grew up in a culture without any dominating religion. Instead, the culture is filled with wisdoms and superstitions; both wisdoms and superstitions are in the representations of Confucianism and Daoism.

Confucius  was lived from 551-479 BC, a Chinese philosopher, whose teaching emphasized the concept in the individual and public morality, the correctness of social relationships, the justice for all, and the sincerity of each individual. (ref. wikipage)

Daoism is a philosophical tradition and can be back traced to  600 BC, wiich emphasizes on living in harmony with lives.  Dao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable, i.e., “The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. “ (ref. wikipage)

Ineffability is concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words, often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term. (ref. wikipage)

Wisdom is defined as good sense, insight, and the accumulation of scientific knowledge.

Superstition is defined as the irrational fear of what is unknown or mysterious, especially in connection with religion.  Yes, something is mysterious and we have to have faith in it.

Some of the quotable wisdoms in Confucianism are typically described as  follows:

First, all of us are going through a life with the following staged view:  (三十而立,四十不惑,五十知天命,六十顺,七十方为所欲为不逾矩。)

  1. We are supposed to be self-sufficient and established at the age 30.
  2. We reach to the state  of no longer being confused at the age 40.
  3. We understand our own destinies at the age 50.
  4. We allow any critisim about ourselves with ease at the age 60.
  5. We can do everything we want without offending anyone or violating any law at the age 70.

Second, on who we are, human beings are born to be good. We are all similar in characters even if our habits may be far apart.   ” 人之初性本善,性相近习相远。”

Third, on what we should do, what you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.  “己所不欲,勿施於人。”

Last, on what we could do, I can always find a teacher, a mentor, or someone I can learn from while I am with two other people.  “三人行, 必有我师。”

In Daoism, striving for the state of harmony is essential since everything has two sides, i.e.,  the dichotomy of things. The following three quotations are typical Dao’s teaching:

  • The Dao that can be told is not the eternal Dao. “道可道非常道”
  • The name that can be named is not the eternal name. “名可名非常名”
  • Always utter the half of what you want to say. “话到嘴边留半句”

In western culture, the similar wisdoms can be found as well. For example,

“Do to others as you would have them do to you.” –Bible

“Sandwich every bit of criticism between two thick layers of praise.” ~Mary Kay Ash and

“For a manager to be perceived as a positive manager, they need a four to one positive to negative contact ratio.” ~Ken Blanchard

In conclusion, human beings are born to be good. We can always find reasons for evil doings done by evil doers. To avoid those evil doings, we should promote causes for doing the good and oppress the causes for doing the evils. 

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Thoughts and Languages

12 Sep

Can we understand what others say or what others are meant to say?
Can we describe what we do or what we have done?
For whatever we do or have done, there is a purpose for it.
What is the purpose of what we are doing?
What is the result of what we did and how to demonstrate what we did?
How do we demonstrate a purpose or a result with visual aids, body languages and verbal language?

Understanding a purpose requires thinking; acting to achieve a result requires methodicalness guided by thoughts. The more complex an action is, the more thoughts are needed to put into the action.
It is essential for the action to be carried out successfully to achieve its purpose.

For many simple actions, we do them without thinking of them or with the habit of doing them correctly. The following quote by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, shown in the movie, The Iron Lady, may be a proper illustration.

“Watch your thoughts for they become words. Watch your words for they become actions. Watch your actions for they become … habits. Watch your habits, for they become your characters. And watch your character, for it becomes your destiny! What we think we become.”

For more complex actions, we have to think harder. Oftentimes we do such thinking systematically: one is in the top down fashion analytically; one is in the bottom up fashion synthetically. Analytic thinking gives us the guidance through a complicate action logically, whereas synthetic thinking rationalizes what we have done either correctly or wrongly. Both are processes of theorization. The guidance obtained through analytic or synthetic thinking consists of principles, which are obeying nature laws.

Here are examples of our thoughts in actions while exploring physical world.

  • With the understanding of laws of fluid dynamics we build the best ships;
  • With the understanding of laws of aerodynamics we build the best airplanes.
  • With the understanding of electromagnetic waves, we build the best broadcast networks, wired or wireless.
  • With the understanding of light properties, we build fine machines, such as laser surgical medical devices.
  • With the understanding of nuclear physics, we build efficient energy supplies, batteries or power supply networks.

 

  • With the exploration of particle physics, we try to understand our universe, the big bang cosmology and the age of universe.

Here are examples of our thoughts in actions while exploring biological world.

  • With the understanding of our environment, the coexistence of plants and animals, and the structures and life cycles of these plants and animals, we produce medicine to cure diseases and prolong lives.

 

  • With the understanding of dynamics of breathing, digestion, circulation, neural, and reproduction systems of human beings, we prepare ourselves for having the best protections in case of natural disasters.
  • With the understanding of Evolution Theory of biology, we make efforts to protect our living environment for the best of our presence and our future.

Natural laws exist within our social environment as well. For example, as having quoted above, from Lady Thatcher, the positive thoughts lead to positive words and actions, in turn, lead to positive habits and characters. Therefore, the positive thoughts benefit our mental health individually; the positive thoughts benefit our society collectively.

Thoughts can be the original of which creative people make; thoughts can be the inspirational that role models lead by examples. Our thoughts, either created or inspired, are communicated through languages. They are the drivers of our civilization.

Nature Made vs. Man Made

7 Sep

Evolutionary Computing: A Complexity Study with Systems Thinking

Abstract. This blog is a sequel to both software evolution and software as complex adaptive system in which I describe how the modern software can be viewed as a complex adaptive system and how software evolution can be placed or mapped in parallel to the Darwinian Evolution Theory of biology. Instead of working toward genetic computational approaches to biology, it studies complex adaptive systems in software as if software is the same among biological populations that abide by evolutionary theories of biology. It explores the relationship between complexity studies as a scientific endeavor, and systems thinking as a problem solving skill while approaching to generic software solutions, known as Computational Intelligence, to any problem of our interests at hand. It argues that skills with systems thinking are critical, and that applying them may add values to software development activities, especially to large-scale complex software aiming for the high quality and rapid productivity.

1 Introduction
Is “software” and “computer programs” exchangeable? My answer is no even if software is composed with many computer programs. During the end of 60s, Donald Knuth differentiated software from programs with “programs to facilitate the writing of other programs [1].” A decade later, Gilb and Weinberg [2] made emphasis on the separation of data and program by saying: “In the world of systems design, programs and data are the scissors blades working together to form the broader class—software. Lacking either blade, computers couldn’t cut through problems—yet for many people, ‘software’ is synonymous with ‘programs’.” These time-stamped insights on software have provided us the flavors of soft-ware evolution. Fast forwarding, most of software today is significantly different from those 40 years ago. I have argued that modern software is a complex adaptive system (CAS) [3] and viewing software as CAS can help us to deal with issues in its development and its usage realistically. Let us look at how study of complexity and systems thinking could benefit the making of software by engineers and the using of software by users/customers.
Both complexity and system thinking are faculties in us enabling our views of the world in depth. These faculties are rooted in our ability to apply abstraction. The study of complexity and systems thinking applies to software systems development in this paper is to the extend from the study of systems engineering, i.e., a layer of abstraction higher to the discipline in which the man-made electrical and mechanical devices are as systems components while clear objectives are expected with optimization and stabilization for the purpose of control. The study of complexity and systems thinking [4] should have no differences with the study of applied mathematics. Both are efforts to enable us to understand our subjects of interests and to help us cope with real problems within the context of systems in reality.
The novel approach to evolutionary computing, a subject of the interest in this paper, lies not in genetic computational approach to biology but in the soft-ware systems as complex adaptive systems as in biological populations. After the use of the software maturity model [5] to gain a better understanding of software maturity process, this paper explores the relationship between complexity study as a scientific endeavor and systems thinking as a problem solving skill, in order to approach to computational solutions, i.e., some kind of generic software solutions to problems of our interests at hand. Starting with a categorization of software next, the rest of the paper is arranged with describing CAS in software in section three and systems thinking as principle applying to software development in section four. Examples used to facilitate discussions are embedded throughout the paper before giving concluding remarks..

2 Categorize software
All knowledge is recognized within context including software and software quality. When one studies quality of software in generic sense, the first thing we want to know is where our generalization comes from. That is, what are possible kinds of software is there for each special purpose that we generalize. We then analyze the methods that are used in developing software in order to achieve certain quality and efficiency. Whether the saying: “not all software was created equal” is a joke or not, the implication is the obvious: 1) the software crisis had led to soft-ware engineering as a discipline forty plus years ago; 2) computing technologies and methodologies had developed exponentially since then; 3) all of computing approaches are invented purposefully with building tools, components, or COTS to be shared in software making; 4) however, because of the massive computing technology development efforts, we cannot help to ask ourselves “what is soft-ware?” Pondering such question, it is to make a better sense in mapping technologies with problems we are facing by means of software as their solutions. The key is to know the type of software that is good at solving certain problems using certain tools and methods, so we can make them effective and efficiently. Let us look at how software has been categorized by researchers and practitioners in software engineering or in software development practice.
In his introduction to software engineering [6], Ian Sommerville introduced software in the context of systems with pointing out that for all possible systems existed in the world, there will be software design and implementation techniques for software development of each system. On the other hand, Mary and Tom Poppendick [7] introduced software through its impacts to business [7] with four levels as follows: 1) strategic business initiative, 2) business feature up-grade, 3) infrastructure upgrade, 4) maintenance. This is in the context of software as the enabling core of a business. Typical examples are software developed in house at companies such as Google and Amazon.com. With viewing software as a product, Poppendicks wrote: “For the sake of simplicity, we use the term product champion, although we recognize that you may not use the word product to refer to your systems. You may be developing 1) software as a product 2) software embedded in a product 3) software enabling a process 4) software under contract (at p38 in [7]).” In case of last two on the list, they noted that software should not be defined by technology but by systems that entail problems by observers.
Poppendicks’ views of software systems and software products are well aligned with Sommerville’s view of software in the context of systems. Indeed, systems, as in applying systems thinking, are the fundamental skill for us to deal with complex problems; and software provides modern solutions to complex problems whether these software solutions are in the context of business initiatives or product developments.
The study by Michael Jackson in Problem Frames [8] has empowered us with the realization of the inevitable gap between problems and software as solutions [8][9]. It signifies the importance of our study in software evolution. The two essential aspects in software evolution are the reduction of the gap between understanding of a problem at hand and coming up with a solution in software and the evolution of the technologies used in making the software as solution to the problem. Studying CAS does help us address our concerns about the software development. Let us look at software as CAS next.

3 Complex Adaptive Systems in Software
Software is pervasive in every corner of our society. The society as the modern industrial world enriches the rapid growth of software. In this section, I will proceed with analyzing a few examples in different industries to make my point on the necessity of understanding CAS in software. Here is the list of examples to be analyzed next. 1) Compiler construction [10] as a solution to computing technology. 2) Chess playing programs, design and implementation, as a solution to the entertainment industry, and 3) a set of software applications as business solutions via Internet. These examples entail the typical and well thought out problems in the prospect of the three Dead Art, coined by Keith Braithwaite in the context of calling attention to software engineering methodology in Agile age, namely, analysis, architecture, and modeling [9]. However, the challenges still exist in the prospect of eliminating gaps between problem frames and solution frames as mentioned in [8][9] due to the nature of software as CAS [3].

3.1 Compiler
In Parnas’ 1996 article [11], he started with a few simple and organized software designs by Wirth [10] and Dijkstra [12]. He calls these examples software Jewels and points out that, in spite of helpful articles and many textbooks on software design, software jewels remind rare. He states: “Most of the software we see or buy is ugly, unreliable, hard to change, and certainly not something that Wirth or Dijkstra would admire.” Following up with his observation, I choose to use his example of the compiler construction, in which a compiler for Obron-0 is developed by Wirth as my first example in studying CAS in software.
“Compiler converts program texts into internal code that bridges between software and hardware. [10]” Invention of compiler is a milestone achievement in computing technology, which has the milestone significance in computer education for students in computer science major, as it was first and foremost pointed out by Wirth in the preface of his book [10]. Let us analyze Wirth’s software to see the reasons we view it as CAS based on the five characters that are defining CAS by Paul Cilliar [13]:
First, a complex system consists of a large number of elements. Compiler are complex is obvious especially when the language it compiles are large and complex, such as Java or C++. Second, these elements interact dynamically via information exchanges non-deterministically. The interactions may be described technically as fairly rich, non-linear, short ranged, and recurring. The compiler parses the syntax of a program text by a user; it then analyzes semantics to find fault of the text before going through the rest of the paths to get its final translation of users’ code into machine code. In theory, as long as the compiler is not proved to be correct, one can never assume that the machine code is 100% correct. That is to say, errors made by a user unintentionally exist and behaviors of the machine code generated by a compiler is not predictable even though a good compiler does a better job doing its translation and may be called software jewels in Parnas’ expression. Due to the error prone nature of humans’ problem skills through programming, it bounds to have unpredictability inside a compiler. It’s safe to think that the compiler is non-deterministic. Third, a complex system interacts with its environment openly. The scope of the system is usually determined by the purpose of the system description, thus it is often influenced by the position of the observer, i.e., how the observer is framed. Testing of a compiler is as the same as testing any complex software. That is, complete test coverage is not possible. By applying the Information Hiding Principle, compilers are implemented in multipath, and errors propagate between paths. Forth, complex systems have a history and must be viewed both synchronically and diachronically. All software product are improved, over time, from first release to the last minute the software is being supported by software engineers and used by users. Diachronically viewing a compiler we look at different machines that allow compilers produce code to be executed on each machine. Each compiler implementation for that machine is tailored to that specifically designed hardware and they vary even if using the same architecture design. My follow up question is: does diachronically inspecting a compiler help us build a better quality of the compiler? I tend to think so provided the robust compiler for machines would have common characters to share and their test coverage will be reinforced among implementations that run on each machine. Fifth, complexity is the result of a rich interaction of simple elements that only respond to the limited information presented to them. As all software development start with an architecture design, a complex problem is going to be divided into small problems. In a compiler, the typical solutions, same as in many computer system tools, the information hiding principle is applied; as a result, the multipath compiler is implemented. Three paths are usually the minimal in a compiler: scanner, parser, code generator, with or without an optimizer. Each is simple, but together, the compiler gets the code translation done.
What are lessons learned about complexity in compilers then? 1. Compiler is hardware dependent; hardware aging will cause the compiler to retire. 2. Architectures of compiler are hereditary as in the Darwinian evolution theory applied to biological populations. 3. Both synchronically and diachronically viewing a compiler is the same as the popular view of product families. In a compiler with-in its software product family, it is the design to support each computer language on different hardware. 4. As almost all software (let us leave rooms for exceptions) are running on open systems, so is a compiler, which provides users with a generating machine code to execute, i.e., compilers are means not ends.

3.2 Checker, Chess, and Go
Board game playing programs have been an important part of computing technology demonstrator along with the effort in computer hardware development. Playing Checker, Chess, and Go by the computer is increasingly difficult in this order. Modern computers are able to handle all possible moves in Checker program [14] whereas no anticipated computers, yet, to handle all possible chess moves, much less for Go by cataloging moves, heuristically or not.
Chess playing programs such as well-known Deep Blue by IBM had been my inspiration of ITS research in my PhD study [15]. Making the chess program is a task within AI, and the interesting ones may not only include brutal searches, which are algorithms covering cataloged board moves, but also reflect approaches dynamically as close as our real brains at work. Through studying top players (the world champion chess players) one would get clues in how many variations in playing chess and how hard chess playing problems are for computer to handle. Here is a list of descriptions of chess players to provide readers a flavor on chess playing, which shows the decision making behind risky calculations in each move and how system thinking skill is necessary to enable each player to make their moves.
What are lessons learned in this example?
“Chess is an intellectual gymnastics.” — Wilhelm Steinitz
“Chess mastery essentially consists of analyzing chess positions accurately.” — Mikhail Botvinnik
From the analysis of Edward Scimia at About.com, we can safely identify the core ability of all players plus distinctions of each player as follows:
1. Core capabilities in playing chess are 1) be a positional player, 2) capable of finding deep combinations, and 3) adapting to situation if need; all of which re-quire logical thinking in addition to be good at both endgame and opening.
2. Distinctions in each player vary and name a few as listed here:
* Sharp changes from romantic to attacking
* Quickly and accurately judge a position
* Play creative and deep combination with finding complicated position but quiet
* Adept to strategy play (depth knowledge in opening vs. wide variety of systems)
* Energetic style to put maximum pressure on to his opponents (env)
* Insatiable desire to finding winning chances in each game (prep)
* Preferring to gain a slight edge with no chance of defeat (safety)

3.3 Web-based projects
The third example that differentiates the first two is essentially to show the evolutionary nature of programming tools for a specific task category by using published studies of web-based software development projects. Researchers have been theorizing web-based projects along with WWW’s birth and growth [17] [18]. “A web application framework is a software framework that is designed to support the development of dynamic websites, web applications and web services.” [19] An array of tools is developed to support a web-based project development along with the gradual establishment of frameworks. Tools by definition are to boost productivity in project development. In software development practice, such as in web-based projects, it provided only convenience for project management, i.e., software development measurement and control. Altendorf et al [18] had given their insightful analysis of pros and cons in the experience of using J2EE technology in their large web application development. Compared with the earlier web project development with simpler web development tools participated by the author at NASA GSFC [17], large software system development due to restrictions imposed by tools may have had more negative impacts, which have been analyzed in terms of interrelated in the relationship between software requirements and software design [20].

3.4 Discussion
We have introduced three examples above to show complexity in software while each has its own characteristics. Let us compare them and make a further discussion.
Complexity in the compiler design relies on the language that the compiler is to translate and the hardware that the compiler runs on. Complexity in board games is up to the difficulty of the games themselves. With technologies used to improve game playing while each game is sufficiently complex, our challenge in making the software to play the game is in the knowledge of playing the game. Solutions in software rely on the people who understand each game, not only those who know technologies. Complexity, in the web design as in the third ex-ample given above, can be man-made in the sense that how we do to promote productivity with tools and methods. T.K. Landauer has shown us his answer in The trouble with Computers. That is the fact that the computer age has not provided labor productivity growth as we expected (p15 in [21].) One conclusion that may be derived from these examples is that no matter how the complexity in software is, an apparent solution to the problem addressed by the software lies in systems thinking, a critical problem solving skill.

4 A Critical Skill: System Thinking
Let us take close inspection of the terminology, systems thinking, with the retrospection of the author’s software development applying systems thinking. The skill of systems thinking is indeed the skill used to problem solving and acquired through learning how scientists and engineers applying it in their discovering knowledge taught at school. We study via textbook in which we learn not only the content of knowledge but also how such knowledge is derived. Although system thinking is considered skill, it is based on faculty within as generically. To some it requires enforced training to others acquiring it can be self taught. In some the learning process comes naturally, for others it requires intensive training. Eventually, it becomes a habit in scientific endeavor. In either case, it appears to be within us while we are engaging in problem solving. Further, our visions are the results applying this systems thinking skill/faulty, which guide us to an appropriate solution to each problem we are facing.
What are influential factors onto us in order to build up the skill then? This is the immediate concern once we accept the premise in our understanding of the term, systems thinking. Viewing it as a critical skill in problem solving, I argued that it is the core learning in higher education, such as learning scientific knowledge as mandatory for students in a four-year college and beyond. Let us take close inspection of the terminology, systems thinking, with the retrospection of the author’s software development applying systems thinking. The skill of systems thinking is indeed the skill used to problem solving and acquired through learning how scientists and engineers applying it in their discovering knowledge taught at school. We study via textbook in which we learn not only the content of knowledge but also how such knowledge is derived. Although system thinking is considered skill, it is based on faculty within as generically. To some it requires enforced training to others acquiring it can be self taught. In some the learning process comes naturally, for others it requires intensive training. Eventually, it be-comes a habit in scientific endeavor. In either case, it appears to be within us while we are engaging in problem solving. Further, our visions are the results applying this systems thinking skill/faulty, which guide us to an appropriate solution to each problem we are facing.
What are influential factors onto us in order to build up the skill then? This is the immediate concern once we accept the premise in our understanding of the term, systems thinking. Viewing it as a critical skill in problem solving, I argued that it is the core learning in higher education, such as learning scientific knowledge as mandatory for students in a four-year college and beyond.

5. Concluding Remarks
In his Problem Frames [8], Jackson states:
Not only does everyone agree that you should focus on the problem before the solution; almost everyone agrees that you should focus on what the system will do before you focus on how it will do it. What before how is the motto.
He then immediately acknowledges the difficulty in the distinction be-tween what ought to do (problem concerned) and how to get it done (a solution) in software. The openness of the software systems addressing problems by software and solutions to problems. This is the center issue in his Problem Frames. After three hundred pages of discussions in terms of proposals and analyses, Jackson summarizes:
In spite of its 50 year history, software development is a curiously immature affair. To do better we must recognize the great variety in our problems and products, we must think consciously about development risks, we must focus our attention where it matters, we must learn from experience, and we must be masters, not pedants, of development methods.
Jackson has provided us perfect concluding remarks to our issues and concerns expressed and argued in this paper. Indeed, software is CAS and it should be treated as CAS as it is originated in biological populations and modeled by the Darwinian Evolution Theory. The approach in this paper has been exploring the relationship between CAS and systems thinking to study software from the evolutionary view that deserves further scrutiny.

References
1. D. E. Knuth, The Art of Programming I-IV, Addison-Wesley, 1996.
2. T. Gilb and G. M. Weinberg, Humanized Input. Winthrop Publishers, Inc. Cambridge, MA, 1977.
3. B.H. Wu, “A Novel Approach to Evolutionary Computing: an Introduction,” in Proc. of IEEE ICICIP12, Dalian, China. July 15-17, 2012, pp733-738.
4. http://www.systemswiki.org/index.php?title=Main_Page
5. B.H. Wu,“Modeling Software Maturity, a software life cycle management approach,” in Proc. ICIST 2012, Wuhan, China, March 23-25, 2012, p716-720.
6. I. Sommerville, Software Engineering, Addison Wesley; 9 editions, 2010.
7. M.Poppendieck and T. Poppendieck, Leading Lean Software Development: Results Are not the Point, Addison-Wesley Professional; 1 edition, 2009.
8. M. Jackson, Problem Frames, Analyzing and Structuring software development problems. Addison Wesley, 2001.
9. http://www.ndc2011.no/agenda.aspx?cat=1071
10. N. Writh, Compiler Construction (International Computer Science Series) Paper-back., Addison-Wesley, 1996.
11. D.L. Parnas, “Why Software Jewels Are Rare,” IEEE Computer, Feb. 1996, p57-60.
12. E.W. Djikstra, “The Structure of the THE Multiprogramming System,” Comm. ACM. Vol. 11 No. 5, May 1968, p341-346.
13. P. Cilliers. Complexity and Post Modernism. Routledge; 1 edition, 1998.
14. http://webdocs.cs.ualberta.ca/~jonathan/awards/index.html
15. B. H. Wu, Artificial Teaching Assistance: a Framework for Intelligent Tutoring Systems with Abstract Knowledge, UMI dissertation Services, a Bell & Howell company, Ann Arbor, MI, 1998.
16. http://chess.about.com/od/famouschessplayers/a/WorldChampions.htm
17. B.H. Wu, “A framework for WWW query processing,” COMPSAC 2000, p187-188.
18. E.Altendorf, M.Hohman, and R. Zabicki,”Using J2EE on a large, Web-based project,” IEEE Software, Vol.19, #2, 2002, p81-89.
19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_application_framework
20. P.C. Clements, “Rationalize software design,” Chapter 5, Constructing Superior Software (Software Quality Institute Series), Editor, Clements, P.C., MTP, USA, p105-124.
21. T.K. Landauer, The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability, and Productivity [Paperback], A Bradford Book, 1996.